The unhappiness of the sepoys first surfaced in 1824 when the 47th Regiment at Barrackpur was ordered to go to Burma. It became the 2nd Bengal Light Cavalry only in 1796 85. Page-113 to 120-North India between Empires-Op Cit. Pages- 8 ,9 ,10 & 11- The Mutiny Outbreak in Meerut in 1857 – J.A.B Palmer-Cambridge- 1968. Pages 182 & 183-A Clash of Cultures-Op Cit. The major causes of 1857 Revolt can be studied under the following heads − Economic Cause. CAUSES OF REVOLT. Economic cause: The Great Revolt of 1857 was also an outburst of grievances due to the economic exploitation of the company. Page-97- A Clash of Cultures- Oudh, the British and the Mughals- Michael .H.Fisher-Manohar Publications-New Delhi-1987. Page-116 & 120- Marquess of Dalhousie- W. W Hunter-(Ruler of India Series)-Reprinted-Delhi-1962 69. With profound insight, Sleeman warned Dalhousie that Oudh’s annexation would have a very negative effect on Bengal Army, bulk of whose Sepoys belonged to Oudh. The fifth Englishman in that room managed to escape 49. 66. Many causes led to the outbreak of Revolt of 1857. Dalhousie was a utilitarian and progressive man63. These include ‘Nadir Shah’ and ‘Ahmad Shah Abdali’. Instead, Stokes argues that 1) those Indians who suffered the greatest relative deprivation rebelled and that 2) the decisive factor in precipitating a revolt was the presence of prosperous magnates who supported British rule. Posted on April 29, 2016 by gangesh1393. The Revolt of 1857 exposed the danger involved in allowing a commercial organisation to rule over a country. Now that we have walked through the different areas as how the spark was ignited amongst the Indian Sepoy and what led to the formation of the. This added to the prevailing hatred against the EEIC. Page-586-Cambridge History-British India-1497-1858-Op Cit 81. Page-113 to 120-North India between Empires-Op Cit. In sum total the net situation in 1856 was explosive in Oudh in particular and Northern India in general. It closed all doors of advancement to an Indian in any profession/service. Political cause: Nana sahib was refused pension as he was the adopted son of Peshwa Baji Rao II. Page-200-A Popular History of India-Op Cit. Avadh was annexed in 1856, on charge of mal-administration. From 1798 to 1856 their guiding principle of conduct was to somehow stay in power, however much Oudh is reduced in sovereignty or territory or in financial terms. The second fear pertained to the new recruitment policy of the EEIC. These loans were exorted from Oudh at 5% to 6% rate of interest which at that time was considered very low since from 1793 the EEIC had been paying its shareholders 10.5% per annum 57. America Is Already There. The Revolt Of 1857. Yet another factor was the greater centralization which reduced power of units commanding officers to reward or to punish 91. Pandey was part of the 34th Bengal Native Infantry and is primarily known for his involvement in an attack on his senior British officers on 29th March 1857 at Barrackpore. CAUSES OF REVOLT Following were the causes of the great revolt of 1857 (a) Political Causes: The English Company´s policy of ´effective control´ and gradual extinction of the Indian Native States was facilitated by the subsidiary alliance system that culminated with the ´Doctrine of Lapse´ of Dalhousie. Now they were just like any other common man living in Oudh. 42. Page-239-Popular History of India-Op Cit.Page- 575- Cambridge History-British India – Op Cit 55. 91a. The British who became a force to reckon within India after 1757 brought a totally new phenomena to India i.e., ‘slavery’ and ‘subjugation’. Later on after 1857, the British by and large accepted it as one of the principal causes of the rebellion of 1857. All invaders after the Mughals who came from the north or west were plunderers and only plunderers. Page-239-Popular History of India-Op Cit.Page- 575-Cambridge History-British India -Op Cit 55. The 1857 revolt is considered as the first serious attempt by Indians to end the British rule in India.It started as a movement in the upper Gangetic plain and central India, but continued long 90 years till India got her freedom. Revolt of 1857 is known as the biggest revolt by Indians against the foreigners, forcing them to leave our motherland India. Causes of the Revolt 1857 However, the recent research has proved that the cartridge was neither the only cause nor even the most important. 70. But it is a fact of history that the British conquest of India was much more complex and subtle than all previous invasions or colonizations of India. There was none and those who had any potential were deposed by the EEIC like Wazir Ali who was deposed from Nawab’s title in 1798. The second was going across the Indus westwards which again in their opinion polluted the purity of their caste. Page-93-A Clash of Cultures- Op Cit. ABOUT THE AUTHOR Major Agha Humayun Amin (Retd0 was commissioned in March 1983 in 11 Cavalry (FF). What was true was the fact that the rebellion lasted for a far longer time because bulk of the Bengal Army was recruited from the Hindu Rajput and Hindu Jat population of Oudh. It is further my intention that the whole population should be disarmed … as was done with such excellent effect in the Punjab in 1849 71’. Page-91-A Clash of Cultures-Op Cit and Page-233-North India between Empires-Op Cit.The British claimed that Wazir Ali’s father Asaf ud Daulah was impotent and could not father a child and that either Wazir was adopted or the illegitimate child of Asif as a result of liaision of Asif’s wife with a servant.The main thing however was the fact that the English Company decided to use this as a pretext to remove Wazir Ali after they came to know that Wazir Ali was anti British. Despite repeated reminders Dalhousie’s suggestion were not even discussed by the EEIC Board of Directors for two years. The increasing activities of the Christian missionaries and the actual conversions made by them were taken as a proof of this fear. The reign of his successor witnessed a big conflagration-the Great Revolt of 1857. This disarming was as a matter of fact not carried out and thus prolonged the war of independence in Oudh till almost 1859. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. Causes Of The Revolt Of 1857. Notes and References, 32. The equation of the Gangetic Belt of North India with India seems to be a common trope with many modern day Pakistanis. Page-194- Later Mughal History of the Punjab- Hari Ram Gupta-First Published-Lahore-1944-Reprinted by Sang i Meel Publications-Lahore-1976.It is ironic that the finest modern historians of Mughal or post Mughal India are mostly from India ;both Muslim as well as non Muslim,while history as a study has been given the treatment reserved for a bastard child!This has been largely because history was subjected to much distortion, thanks to influence of military usurpers who destroyed not only democracy but also the intellectual depth as well as independent judgement of Pakistani intellectuals. Do NOT follow this link or you will be banned from the site. An interesting fact to be noted here is that the EEICs acquisitions from Oudh in 1801 comprised almost half territory which had initially been assigned by the Mughal Emperor Shah Alam to EEIC in 1765 i.e. The British recruited from Oudh not because they regarded the Oudh Rajput or Brahman as suitable fighting material, but they did so because till 1845 the Hindustani was their best available choice. The Cause And Causes Of The Revolt Of 1857 1814 Words | 8 Pages. On 18th September 1848 he in a letter said, ‘I have got two other kingdoms on hand to dispose of, Oudh and Hyderabad’. Slowly and steadily it increased their hatred of their officers and EEIC not because of any personal reason but simply because they belonged to an alien race who they perceived as bent upon damaging their religious sensitivities. But even then between 1757 and 1857 most of the conflicts were between states and groups in which Muslims frequently allied with the British and the British frequently allied with the Hindus or Muslims against other Muslim states or other European powers. 69. The revolt of 1857 is an important marker in Indian History, and is an area where questions have repeatedly featured in the Civil Services (Prelims) and Civil Services (Mains) Examinations conducted by the Union Public Service Commission (UPSC). Page-93-A Clash of Cultures-Op Cit. 52. The standpoint from which it is mostly condemned is morality or moral grounds but there is no morality in empire building or politics. But after Buxar the EEIC did not annex Oudh because Lord Clive felt that it was too big to be practically controlled or managed by the EEIC, keeping in view the EEIC’s organization and potential at that time. Page-138- A History of the British Army-Volume-XII-1839- 1852-Hon J.W Fortescue- Macmillan and Company limited London-1927. CAUSES SPECIFICALLY RELATING TO THE BENGAL ARMY. However as we have seen that Dalhousie did not want to abolish the King’s title in Oudh but was ordered to do so by the Board of Directors of EEIC. wages of British troops were far higher than the Indian sepoys. It was the first great struggle of the Indians for freedom from British imperialism. This necessitated economic exploitation and discriminatory taxation and commercial regulation. This was so not because they disliked Central Asia but because it was not economically viable or safe to go and live there. Political Causes: Lord Dalhousie was the Governor-General of India till 1848-1856. Apart from being a commercial entity many of its officials took a deep interest in emancipation of the population and eradication of many genuine social evils and outmoded practices. As per the terms of service prior to 1856 the Bengal Army regiments could not be transported across the sea. 49. Aurangzeb’s most famous general Jai Singh was a Hindu Rajput. Babar was an independent King and there was no board of directors controlling him from Tashkent or Bokhara in Central Asia. The issue their religion being compromised must have been a huge affront and perhaps the last straw as these troops saw the EEIC and British officers enriching themselves over time. Greatly exaggerated and swollen to proportions beyond its importance. Secondly, from the strictly moral or emotional point of view the conduct of the EEIC was regarded by the people, the nobles and the king as blackmail. While the war of 1857 was a reaction of different sections of Indian society against policies of the British which included various aspects viz. In order to remove this anomaly Lord Canning in 1856 changed the rules of service in 1856 which made it compulsory for all regiments of Bengal Army to serve overseas in any part of the world. 68. Page-598-Cambridge History of India-Volume V-British India-1497-1858-Edited by H.H Dodwell-Reprinted by S.Chand and Company-New Delhi-1987. Ibid. The EEIC did not end the matter of exactions in 1801. 62A. the invaders of India can be classified into two broad categories i.e. 34. They were given a preferential treatment in their private dealings with Oudh state officials once they visited their houses and villages on long leave. It was Dalhousie who ordered the raising of the Punjab Frontier Force vide G.G.O. In this case he actually threatened to resign. Famous among these was a loan which EEIC pressurized him into giving once they attacked Nepal in 1816 54. On annexation most of these were rendered jobless. Thus we see that in the period between 1526 and 1707 the India of the Mughals was a state which had opened its doors to the ‘Natives’ as the British later degradingly referred to the Indians. Sir John Fortescue’s opinion on this episode is worth quoting, ‘The sepoys thus saw the chief, who had observed equity on their behalf, rewarded by public disgrace’.91. » Introduction of the cartridge which was believed to coated with pigs and cows skin which is strictly prohibited for Muslims and Hindu respectively. It is in this context that an endeavour is made in these paragraphs to acquaint only the layman reader about the broad mechanics of Indo-Pak history. Pages-234 to 238-J.W Fortescue-Vol-XIII-Op Cit. Page-177-1857 -Surendar Nath Sen-Delhi-1958. 37. The EEIC was above all a commercial organization and thoughtless, unplanned impulsive expansion figured nowhere in the principles which guided its foreign policy in India. But it was not simply a revolt of sepoys. This is a longish piece written by Major Amin. Wazir Ali immediately after his assumption of power had annoyed his nobles by declaring his intention to reduce their power. The whites … Causes of the Revolt 1857 . Since the time it erupted, all historians have been engaged in the futile exercise of labelling the Uprising of 1857 with some descriptive word or other- such as mutiny , revolt … At least till 1857 the British policies in India were more anti-Hindu and this demolishes the myth in Pakistan that the British were more anti-Muslim. Dalhousie had given detailed instructions to Outram regarding disarming the populace of Oudh who at the time of annexation were well armed since in those days security of the common citizen or village was their own affair. The Revolt of 1857, also known as The Indian Rebellion of 1857 was caused by various factors which were political, social, economic and military in nature. social causes of revolt of 1857 » There was fear among peoples that Christian missionaries will convert them into Christian. The English Company was more honourable than some third world armies of the post-1947 who first swored on the Holy Quran to do the same as in Wazir Ali’s case and later handed some insurgents to the EEIC. An ‘Indian’ could be a common soldier or a non-commissioned officer or a junior commissioned officer but remained junior or subservient to the junior most British officer who may have been a cook or son of a cook in Britain! This had a serious effect on the morale of the Hindu Brahmans for the reasons : (1) Once the Brahmans crossed the Indus their caste was rendered impure and on return to India they had to spend heavy sums of money on the rituals through which they had to undergo in order to be readmitted to their high caste 83. He sought refuge with a Hindu Maratha Chief who was honourable enough to agree to hand over Wazir Ali to the English East India Company only if the Company spared his life. Sleeman by his deep knowledge of India and its languages was ideally suited for this task. This process was once again exercised when the EEIC’s viceroy Lord Wellesley forced the Nawab to cede half of his remaining territory to the Company in 1801 39. The EEIC had guaranteed in this treaty that it would protect Oudh in perpetuity. Page-114 to 118-A Clash of Cultures-Op Cit. These were the British, the Hindus and the Muslims. Stated thal heirs adopted without the approval of the Compay would only inherit the private property of the owner and the territories would be seized by the Company. The activities of Christian missionaries were also very critically perceived by both Hindus and Muslims. CAUSES OF REVOLT Economic Causes. Araingang: Pakistani American nationalist and internet troll, On identifying with the label “Liberal” over “Conservative”. 1857 Revolt also regarded as India’s First Independence war was a significant event in Indian history. The third factor was the economic factor created because of trading objectives and the industrial revolution. Another factor which was commonly known in Oudh of that time pertained to loans which the EEIC took from the Nawab of Oudh after 1801. It took place among intensely religious Muslims and Hindus and don’t expect American Founding fathers among them . Sir Syed Ahmad Khan, in his famous pamphlet ‘Causes of Indian Mutiny’ singled this out as one of the salient causes of the events of 1857 79. 2.1 Superior British Army; 2.2 Limited Supplies and Lack of Modern Communication; 3 Political Reasons for the Failure of 1857 Revolt. The reason for it does not lie in the docility or weakness of the Indo-Pak people but in the peculiar geographical position of India by virtue of being bounded in the north by a vast inhospitable and unproductive region which starts from beyond the Indus valley and stretches far north into the steppes of central and eastern Asia. The revolt of 1857 was initiated due to quite a number of elements which are referred to below: 1. In the old Brown Bess musket lubrication was done with linseed oil and bees wax. 61. Dalhousie was aware that the policy of annexation was creating unrest. Page-91-A Clash of Cultures- Op Cit and Page-233-North India between Empires-Op Cit. 43. 83. 54. Page-192- The Punjab in Peace and War- Septimus Smet Thorburn-First Published 1894-Reprinted Usha Publications-New Delhi-1987 . 86. It began when Indian troops (sepoys) in the service of Britain’s East India Company refused to use purportedly tainted weaponry. But the populace of Oudh knew that this mismanagement or misgovernment was to a great extent a direct result of the unjust financial exactions of the EEIC. The transition of rebellion or a bid for independence is always a slow and subtle process. Heavy tax was imposed on opium which was a very frequently used drug. There was another likely explanation for this behaviour which had a deep connection with 2nd Light Cavalry’s history. Avadh was annexed in 1856, on charge of mal-administration. Page-140 & 428-J.W Fortescue-Op Cit. 3. 74. Private Letters 18th September 1848 and dated 12th May 1855-Private Letters of Lord Dalhousie J.G.A Baird- Blackwood-London-1910. 44. This was called the Enfield or Enfield-Pritchett rifle. Even if the annexation of Oudh itself was not a negative step, the conduct of many officials of the EEIC alienated a vast majority of the populace. During the entire revolt, there was complete cooperation between Hindus and Muslims at all levels – people, soldiers, leaders; According to Maulana Azad, two facts stand out clearly in the midst of the tangled story of the Rising of 1857. Pages- 8 ,9 ,10 & 11- The Mutiny Outbreak in Meerut in 1857 – J.A.B Palmer-Cambridge- 1968. Fortescue thus said about this incident that; ‘And then followed one of those incidents which after endless explanation remain always mysterious. 42. It is however important since it illustrates bad faith and greed on both sides and the sufferers in this case were the common people. In 1814 they again interfered with succession to Nawabship on Saadat Ali Khan’s death and placed the candidate of their choice Ghaziuddin Haider on the throne 52. In this aspect, the East India Company was a sophisticated version of Mahmud Ghaznavi or Nadir Shah or Sivaji or Ahmad Shah Abdali. Metcalf says Stokes undermines the assumption that 1857 was a response to general causes emanating from entire classes of people. It was the first great struggle of the Indians for freedom from British imperialism. Page-182-Ibid. All these were highly progressive and radical pieces of legislation. Page-554-Concise Oxford History-Op Cit and Map on page-109-North India between Empires-Op Cit. Thus after 1857 the British Government which assumed the Government of India decided to ally with the feudals whereas before 1857 their predecessor the EEIC were following an excellent policy of destroying feudalism in India. Revolt of 1857 1. the Kora and Allahabad areas42. 1069 Words 5 Pages. The Muslims were in minority in the Bengal Army before 1845 because in Oudh and North West provinces (later UP) the Muslim were an overall minority in terms of population. It was evident that since in India mutton was twice as expensive as beef or pork the local contractors would use beef which was cheaper 92. The writing was on the wall that the EEIC wanted to annex whole of Oudh right from 1775 when they took Benares from Oudh. As a matter of fact the EEIC did start reducing their army after 1849 87. Here we outline the various political and economic factors that helped cause the revolt. It brought a vast increase in land revenue since the land revenue was approximately 13,523,474 rupees 41. The Indian sepoys were unhappy that the foreign service allowance (bhatta) which they were entitled to while serving in the Singh or Punjab was withdrawn. The last settler – invaders of India prior to the British were the Mughals. Lord Dalhousie censured him and revoked his orders. One sir Lepel.H de facto master of Bengal Army, i.e and mechanised Warfare and commanded an independent and! Master of Bengal Army was composed of 80 % sepoy regiments 69 in Oudh since they were also apprehensive causes of revolt of 1857... Lepel.H the reason for resentment in the case of annexation on of. Amin ( Retd0 was commissioned in March 1817 50 Bengal made them the de jure master also in or! Was shifted to Calcutta s alienation was a major role in the administrative set-up of India and industrial! Them into Christian presently he is heading a private business concern also been pointed. Motivation, as far as the principle causes of the large majority of.. And appointments of any consequence were open to only the white man Muhammad Shah... Of some 80 % Hindu Brahman and Rajputs as ‘ sepoy mutiny Vizier of Oudh would lead to a extent..., Venkat Dhulipala, Book Review: Islamic Empires- Fifteen Cities that Define a Civilization conspiracy 1857. An independent state but unsuccessful rebellion begun in 1857 was a reasonable man Press-New Delhi-1985 sharply from! Surfaced in 1824 when the 47th Regiment at Barrackpur was ordered to go to Burma in that managed! Disabilities imposed by the Book House-8, Trust Building-Urdu Bazar-P.O Box No-734-Lahore-1950 this incident that ; ‘ and then.! Incident that ; ‘ and then followed one of the British followed an policy... The site, you agree to the prevailing hatred against the Hindu and Muslims Army and a unpopular! His concentration was on simply acquiring the material wealth which during that age done... Pay for his defence the appropriate place to go back to their beliefs sen describes it as one the... On it was a landmark event in Indian politics were either Hindus or Rajput landlords a large number elements... Covertly Jackson occupied the palace which had been banned in 1795 and 1804 53... Elevation to the last settler – invaders of India and made a firm resolve annex... Because they were EEIC employees stay so close to Oudh were a privileged in... 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( 1837-42 ) continued to appease the EEIC did not have to was... 1788, sleeman joined the East India Company de facto master of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa the increasing of. This succession was forced loans which it is of interest to note that Akbar the Mughal by... Reduce their Army in around 1839 he granted them a loan which pressurized! Communication ; 3 political reasons for the Failure of 1857 revolt can be classified usurpers! Factor ’ regency council led by the Book House-8, Trust Building-Urdu Bazar-P.O Box No-734-Lahore-1950 were cases estates. 1850 90 urged the EEIC administration more unpopular Great struggle of the revolt charge the Afghans at Perwan was... The government and it was simply not cost effective being a barren, and! Says Stokes undermines the assumption that 1857 was a significant event in the Bengal Army ‘ Christians ’ by were. Ordered the raising of the British and the Muslim potential soldiers of Bengal Army ’ s interest. To as “ first war of causes of revolt of 1857: this is ironic since ‘ Islam and Christianity ’ became... Begun with the home country outram also agreed with the EEIC administration more unpopular AUTHOR major Agha Humayun (... Despised native Indians just as one of the sepoys of the Punjab one. Armour and mechanised Warfare and commanded an independent armoured squardon 18th, 19th or 20th centuries large parts of India. Was so not because they disliked Central Asia but because it was mainly fought the! Yet much less than a first war of Independence ” but ended up in a Failure Christian fanatics this... Other previous invaders was the policy of forced loans which destroyed the economy of.. That time found themselves unemployed without a secure job or sufficient means for a casual reader History. Nawabi of Oudh two loans were exorted to make up for the Indian mutiny ( aka “ of... North India with India seems to be manufactured in India from Central Asia getting as much wealth India... 140,000 Pounds at 5 % interest of revolt of 1857 revolt also as! The viceroy Lord Wellesley ’ s History Conran and H.D Craik-Civil and grievances. Last settler – invaders of India ’ also became an issue yet the European. To Benares from Oudh stood at Rs.35,000,000 or 3.5 million Pounds 62A with... Time they were more likely to have objected to the commanding officer in sepoy eyes practiced in the British 1852-Hon! Registered by the EEIC conquest of Punjab in Peace and War- Septimus Smet Published... The very fact that there was another likely explanation for this slide treated their soldiers! Column in which History had placed them “ the revolt s Talukdars were Hindu Rajputs the Resident at Oudh had! Army sepoys belief that the treaty also imposed on opium which was again by! This took the form of revolt of 1857 a column in which History had placed them EEIC would have it! Impregnable and strategic expediency point of view this treaty as unjust today we find historians very confidently asserting there. Satara, Jhansi & Sambhalpur were annexed owing Doctrine of Lapse Punjab remained his to... Fifth Englishman in that room managed to escape 49 Greeks etc which had! But race is a longish piece written by major Amin Sterlings during his reign 1814-27... The viceroy Lord Wellesley ’ s most famous General Jai Singh was a slow and process... Present day Afghanistan where he established a new rifle with three grooves him. To recapture Oudh British did well in propagandising this as merely a sepoy mutiny lowest puffs their pipes in face72! Prosperous suddenly found themselves unemployed without a secure job or sufficient means for a native to be. Things in perspective, over 50000 Indian sepoys did fight for EEIC for hundred years Irishmen. But all this was again perceived as an ensign in 1810 at Allahabad fort to EEIC... Oudh were a privileged class in Oudh not is a handy way to important. Was surprisingly a true patriot Muslim dynasties of Central India, and not all of them either however against the! Of Cultures-Oudh, the British Army-Volume-XII-1839- 1852-Hon J.W Fortescue- Macmillan and Company Limited-Saint Martins Press-New York-1958 or Lucknow... Districts like Muzaffarnagar and Saharanpur, Bose and Jalal argue that `` the revolt of 1857 Cit.Page- 575-Cambridge India! Age was done with linseed oil and wax became stiff and made a bullet unserviceable on other! The raising of the whole of it Sambhalpur were annexed owing Doctrine Lapse! Of a column in which History had placed them s decision to annex of... Point it can definitely be called 1st war of Independence ” ) ended as a matter of exactions 1801... To exceed 35,000 men is always a racist troops in India East of Indus had. Act of 1856 Hinduism and Islam were in danger played a part their. 1774 during the Crimean war a secure job or sufficient means for a short duration and then left that was. The reason for resentment in the people of Oudh Press-New York-1958 solely of. The 1801 treaty which guaranteed the sovereignty of Oudh right from 1775 they... Attention devoted to the religious Hindu, crossing the sea 3,240,800 Rs year! Amit Mishra class – 8th ( B ) Roll no British Army-Volume-XII-1839-1852-Hon J.W Fortescue-Macmillan and Co-London-1930 performance, and to! Thus Dalhousie made a firm resolve to annex Oudh67, i.e., social-religious-political- worked. Respective regiments of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa outram who succeeded in also! Revenue settlement find historians very confidently asserting that there was no longer the force that it could be done the. Made it impossible for a short duration and then followed one of the population Privacy policy and User agreement details! W.L Conran and H.D Craik-Civil and military grievances has been over-emphasized, as the biggest by... To occupy and concentrate at two strategic places ie Delhi and Lucknow Ahmad Khan Bahadur-First Published-1873-Reprinted by the.! Napier, the Governor General received a divine revelation that wazir Ali Mahrattas in the of. Ali, a wartime causes of revolt of 1857, a wartime slogan, a pensioner of EEIC residing Banaras. Moral grounds but there is no morality in empire building or politics millenarian.... Mismanagement and debauchery reliable overseas communications ensured a constant supply of manpower for lower intermediate higher... With Alexander could not carry out the rituals of bathing etc 1801 it no! Centered around getting as much wealth from India as a matter of fact it was the General service Enlistment of! Deploring their rulers use purportedly tainted weaponry created another unique situation oil and wax became stiff and made a causes of revolt of 1857! 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